We have applied our best effort to ensure that the information that we provide in response to your inquiries and requests is based on, confirmed by or derived from the most reliable, unbiased, authoritative and respected organizations or publications available in the United States. In many cases you can easily view (on our web site) the references that are applicable to given information.

Primary Sources – US Government

The primary sources and/or the confirmation of the information presented on our site or displayed within our apps include the following US Government publications and Web sites:

  • US Department of Agriculture. USDA provides a comprehensive and authoritative collection of publications and electronic data on nutritional content of various food items and products as well as dietary guidelines. By far, the dominant source of information on our web site is the USDA data, including numerous Web sites and publications. Includes USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (health.gov/DietaryGuidelines, www.nutrition.gov).
  • National Institute of Health (NIH) of the United States. Perhaps the most widely respected authority in the world on the latest research and available information on health, fitness and diet.
  • NIH – Office of Dietary Supplements Web site (od.nih.gov).
  • PubMed.gov
  • MedlinePlus Health Information – a service of National Library of Medicine and NIH (MedlinePlus.gov).
  • NIH – National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease
  • NIH – National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) previously known as National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of Health and Human Services.
  • Dept. of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (www.cdc.gov)
  • National Cancer Institute. (cancer.gov)
  • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC). A Service of National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and NIH. (niddk.nih.gov/index.htm)
  • National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). A service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • PRAL (Potential Renal Acid Load) formula applied to USDA nutrient database data
  • The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (fitness.gov)
  • US Dept of Health and Human Services; US Environmental Protection Agency
  • Dash Eating Plan; Your Guide to Lowering Blood Pressure with Dash; US Dept. of Health and Human Services; NIH; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
  • NIH – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
  • Office on Women’s Health; US Dept. of Health and Human Services
  • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. NIH. (nidcr.nih.gov).
  • NIH Senior Health (nihseniorhealth.gov)
  • National Institute on Aging. NIH. (nia.nih.gov).
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States
  • USDA Pesticide Data
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
  • Avoid Food-Drug Interactions — A guide from the National Consumers League and U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Headache: Hope Through Research

Secondary Sources

We also found the following sources useful, but we favored the data and the information available from our primary sources:

  • American Heart Association (www.heart.org)
  • Institute of Medicine – Food and Nutrition Board – Dietary Reference Intakes. (www.iom.edu)
  • Dietary Reference Intakes – The essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements(Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The National Academies Press. 2006)
  • The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing Therapies(Ballantine Books; New York. First Edition; May 2000)
  • The PDR Family Guide to Nutritional Supplements(Ballantine Books; New York; 2001)
  • Mayo Clinic. Reliable information for a healthier life from Mayo Clinic (www.mayoclinic.com)
  • Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide(Anthony Komaroff, MD; Simon & Schuster; 1999)
  • Harvard School of Public Health (hsph.harvard.edu) and Harvard Medical School
  • Johns Hopkins prescription for longevity (Johns Hopkins Medical letter Health after 50; 2004)
  • American Cancer Society (www.cancer.org)
  • American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (www.aapmr.org)
  • American Diabetic Association (www.diabetes.org)
  • American Dietetic Association (www.eatright.org)
  • Multiple Sclerosis Society (www.nationalmssociety.org)
  • The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. (Andrea Pierce; Morrow; 1999)
  • Living Well With HIV/AIDS – A manual on nutritional care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Stanford Hospital & Clinics. Low FODMAP diet handout
  • The University of Arizona Campus Health Service. The Low FODMAPs Diet.
  • Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America
  • foodallergy.org
  • Natural Cures and Gentle Medicines That Work Better Than Dangerous Drugs or Risky Surgery(Frank K. Wood and the Editors of FC&A Medical Publishing; 2004)
  • Prescription for Natural Cures (James F. Balch, M.D. and Mark Stengler, N.D.; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004)
  • herpes.com
  • The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods (Michael D. Murray ND and Joseph & Lara Pizzorno; Atria Books; 2005)
  • Australian Institute of Sports (www.ais.org.au)
  • Atkins.com
  • Mendosa.com
  • The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss(Arthur Agatston; St. Martin’s Griffin; April 19, 2005)
  • The RealAge Makeover (Michael F. Roizen, MD; Harper; 2004)
  • healthandage.com (Sponsored by Boomerang Pharmaceutical Communications)
  • Discovery of the Ultimate Superfood (Young G., R. Lawrence, and M. Schreuder; Essential Science Publishing; 2005)
  • essense-of-life.com
  • National Health Research Institute of Taiwan. Food Charts.
  • Gout (Prof. R. Grahame, Dr. A. Simonds and Dr. E. Carrey); and www.acumedico.com
  • Environmental Working Group (www.EWG.org)
  • International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD), and Monash University, creators of low FODMAP diet for IBS
  • Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation (www.sjogrens.org)
  • The Dark Side of Wheat (by Sayer Ji; www.GreenMedInfo.com)
  • GreenMedInfo.com
  • High pH therapy research by A.K. Brewer, and Nobel prize winner Otto Warburg (BREWER, A. K. The high pH therapy for cancer tests on mice and humans)
  • Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health
  • Eat Well, Live Well with Spinal Cord Injury (Joanne Smith and Kylie James; 2013)
  • The Oxalate Content of Food By Helen O’Connor, MS, RD
  • Oxalate Content of Foods. The Children’s Medical Center (Dayton’s Children)
  • The Oxalosis & Hyperoxaluria Foundation
  • New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center
  • World Health Organization Interim Guidelines: Nutritional care of children and adults with Ebola virus disease in treatment centers
  • Lupus Foundation of America (Lupus.org)
  • FamilyDoctor.org
  • Academy of Nutrition and Diabetics
  • European Chemicals Agency
  • Gastroenterological Society of Australia
  • The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 19th Ed, 2013
  • Tufts Health and Nutrition Letter
  • Myo-inositol content of common foods: development of a high-myo-inositol diet; Rex S. Clements, Jr., M.D. and Betty Darnell, M.S., R.D.
  • Potential role and therapeutic interests of myo-inositol in metabolic diseases; Croze ML1, Soulage CO.; Epub 2013 Jun 10
  • Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome; Zacchè MM1, Caputo L, Filippis S, Zacchè G, Dindelli M, Ferrari A.; Epub Feb. 2015
  • The effect of marjoram (Origanum majorana) tea on the hormonal profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled pilot study; Haj-Husein I1, Tukan S, Alkazaleh F.; 2014
  • Focus on metabolic and nutritional correlates of polycystic ovary syndrome and update on nutritional management of these critical phenomena; Rondanelli M1, Perna S, Faliva M, Monteferrario F, Repaci E, Allieri F.; Epub 2014 Sep. 8
  • The effect of dietary carbohydrates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome; Frary JM1, Bjerre KP, Glintborg D, Ravn P. Epub 2014 Jun 10
  • Longterm management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS); Bates GW1, Legro RS.; Epub 2012 Dec 20.
  • Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings; Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A.
  • Glycemic index and glycemic load for 100+ foods. Harvard Medical School
  • NutritionAction.com
  • University of Maryland Medical Center. (http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/magnesium).
  • National Osteoporosis Foundation
  • Gout — A Review of Nonmodifiable and Modifiable Risk Factors. Lindsey A. MacFarlane, MD, Seoyoung C. Kim, MD, ScD, MSCE; Sep. 1, 2014
  • Non-allopathic adjuvant management of osteoarthritis by alkalinisation of the diet. Van Velden, D. P., Reuter, H., Kidd, M. & Müller, F. O. African J. Prim. Health. care Fam. Med. 7, E1–7 (2015)
  • Whole-Foods, Plant-Based Diet Alleviates the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis. Chelsea M. Clinton, Shanley O’Brien, Junwen Law, Colleen M. Renier, and Mary R. Wendt
  • Cochrane. The Cochrane Collaboration. (Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis (Review),  Cameron M, Chrubasik S.; Chondroitin for osteoarthritis (Review), Singh JA, Noorbaloochi S, MacDonald R, Maxwell LJ; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2014)
  • Academic Journals. http://www.academicjournals.org
  • American Heart Association. http://hyper.ahajournals.org
  • BMJ. http://www.bmj.com
  • The Journal of American Medical Association. http://jama.jamanetwork.com
  • The American Society for Nutritional Sciences (Ledikwe & Martin 2005, http://jn.nutrition.org/content/135/4/905.short)
  • Wayne State University Physicians Group (http://www.wsupgdocs.org/family-medicine/WayneStateContentPage.aspx?nd=1571)
  • Nutrition and You (copyright 2009-15 By Umesh Rudrappa http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/jalapeno-peppers.html)
  • Stress Management Society (http://www.stress.org.uk/How-food-can-help-your-stress-levels.aspx)
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (https://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/how-to-eat-right-to-reduce-stress)
  • Explore IM (http://exploreim.ucla.edu/wellness/eat-right-drink-well-stress-less-stress-reducing-foods-herbal-supplements-and-teas/)
  • MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Morris, M. C., Tangney, C. C., Wang, Y., Sacks, F. M., Bennett, D. a., & Aggarwal, N. T. (2015). Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 1–8.
  • Explore IM. UCLA Center for East-West Medicine (http://www.foodforthebrain.org/media/231110/Depression___The_Nutrition_Connectin.pdf)
  • Depression and Anxiety: Nutritional Considerations (http://www.nutritionmd.org/health_care_providers/psychiatric/depression_nutrition.html)
  • University of Michigan Health Center (http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2090006)
  • Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation (http://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/nutrition-natural-products-and-supplements)
  • What Is the Anti-Inflammatory Diet? By Wendy Marcason, RD; Nov. 2010; Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Nutrition, Inflammation, and Disease; By Mary Franz, MS, RDN, LDN; Today’s Dietitian; Vol. 16 No. 2 P. 44
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); World Health Organization. Press Release #240. Oct. 26, 2015
  • National Foundation for Cancer Research. NFCR.Org
  • American Osteopathic Association. (Osteopathic.org)
  • American Academy of Dermatology (aad.org)
  • National Parkinson Foundation (parkinson.org)
  • The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (acog.org)
  • Radical Remission: Surviving Cancer Against All Odds. Kelly Turner, PhD. HarperOne (March 18, 2014)
  • National Kidney Foundation (kidney.org)
  • The Paleo Diet, Loren Cordain, 2011. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Fasano A (pubmed/21248165)
  • The Best of All Worlds: A family Doctor’s Path to Integrative Medicine by Andrew S. Lanhardt, M.D. 2015
  • Gottschall, Elaine. Digestion-gut-autism connection: the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. Medical Veritas. 2004; 1:261-271; and her book Breaking the Vicious Cycle: Intestinal Health Through Diet. Based on research by Dr. Sidney V. Haas (1870-1964).
  • World Cancer Report 2014. International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Health Organization.
  • Moshfegh AJ, Friday JE, Goldman JP, Ahuja JK (July 1999). “Presence of inulin and oligofructose in the diets of Americans”. Journal of Nutrition. 129 (7 Suppl): 1407S–1411S. PMID 10395608.
  • Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria; Mattia P. Arena, Graziano Caggianiello, Daniela Fiocco, Pasquale Russo, Michele Torelli, Giuseppe Spano, and Vittorio Capozzi. PMC3958897
  • Fasano, Alessio; Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases; and Intestinal Permeability and Its Regulation by Zonulin: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications; pubmed/22109896 and 22902773
  • The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes. Yang D, Pornpattananangkul D, Nakatsuji T, Chan M, Carson D, Huang CM, Zhang L.; pubmed/19665786
  • Long term topical application of lactic acid/lactate lotion as a preventive treatment for acne vulgaris. Garg T, Ramam M, Pasricha JS, Verma KK. pubmed/17656910
  • Over-stimulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling by western diet may promote diseases of civilization: lessons learnt from laron syndrome. Bodo C Melnik, Swen Malte John, and Gerd Schmitz; pmc/articles/PMC3141390/
  • The relationship of diet and acne – A review. Apostolos Pappascorresponding; pmc/articles/PMC2836431/
  • Nutrition and acne: therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets. Paoli A, Grimaldi K, Toniolo L, Canato M, Bianco A, Fratter A. pubmed/22327146
  • Does obesity increase risk for iron deficiency? A review of the literature and the potential mechanisms. Cepeda-Lopez AC, Aeberli I, Zimmermann MB. pubmed/21462109
  • Fibromyalgia and nutrition: what news? Rossi A, Di Lollo AC, Guzzo MP, Giacomelli C, Atzeni F, Bazzichi L, Di Franco M. pubmed/25786053
  • Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis; Paolo Riccio and Rocco Rossano; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342365/
  • Flu and Colds: In Depth; National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health; https://nccih.nih.gov/heatlh/flu/indepth
  • LUPUS: NONDIETARY AND DIETARY FACTORS; Amy C. Brown, PhD, RD University of Hawaii. 2004; http://www2.hawaii.edu/~amybrown/LUPUS-generalsummary.pdf
  • Cross-Reaction between Gliadin and Different Food and Tissue Antigens; Aristo Vojdani, Igal Tarash; 2013
  • Separate and Joint Effects of Alcohol and Smoking on the Risks of Cirrhosis and Gallbladder Disease in Middle-aged Women; Bette Liu Angela Balkwill  Andrew Roddam  Anna Brown; American Journal of Epidemiology; 2008
  • Cleveland Clinic. Clevelandclinic.org.
  • Dietary fish oil delays hypoxic skeletal muscle fatigue and enhances caffeine stimulated contractile recovery in the rat in vivo hindlimb. Peoples GE, McLennan PL; 2017; pubmed/28177707
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health; Stewart Jeromson, Iain J. Gallagher, Stuart D. R. Galloway, and D. Lee Hamilton; 2015; PMC4663562
  • The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease; Robert R Wolfe; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 2006
  • Alessandra Tavani et al. Instituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri” in Milan. 2013; http://eu-acme.org/europeanurology/upload_articles/tavani.pdf
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/tips-prevention/diet-nutrition
  • Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging; Silke K. Schagen, Vasiliki A. Zampeli, Evgenia Makrantonaki, and Christos C. Zouboulis; 2012; PMC3583891
  • The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ajcn.nutrition.org
  • Long- and Short-term Effects of Tobacco Smoking on Circulating Concentrations of B Vitamins; Arve Ulvik, Marta Ebbing, Steinar Hustad, et al; April 2010; Clinical Chemistry
  • Diet and Diabetic Retinopathy: Insights From the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT); David K. Cundiff and Claudio R. Nigg, PhD; PMC1681380
  • Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review; Dong-wei Zhang, Min Fu, Si-Hua Gao and Jun-Li Liu; PMC3857752
  • Effect of vitamin C on inflammation and metabolic markers in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. Ellulu MS, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Khaza’ai H, Abed Y.; pubmed/26170625
  • Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. Davis PA, Yokoyama W.; pubmed/21480806
  • Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M.; pubmed/21134328
  • Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Nishi SK, Kendall CW, Bazinet RP, Bashyam B, Ireland CA, Augustin LS, Blanco Mejia S, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ; pubmed/24925120
  • Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Bahadoran Z, Tohidi M, Nazeri P, Mehran M, Azizi F, Mirmiran P; pubmed/22537070
  • Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Pan A, Sun J, Chen Y, Ye X, Li H, Yu Z, Wang Y, Gu W, Zhang X, Chen X, Demark-Wahnefried W, Liu Y, Lin X; pubmed/17987126
  • Strawberry anthocyanin and its association with postprandial inflammation and insulin. Edirisinghe I, Banaszewski K, Cappozzo J, Sandhya K, Ellis CL, Tadapaneni R, Kappagoda CT, Burton-Freeman BM; pubmed/21736853
  • Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Russo GL.; pubmed/19022225
  • Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial; Frankie B Stentz et al; drc.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000258
  • Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes; Brenda M. Davy, Richard A. Winett, et al; February 23, 2017; doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172610
  • National Council on Aging; Evidence-Based Falls Prevention Programs; ncoa.org
  • Silicon content of foods and its availability. 2009. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744664
  • Silicon in foods and diets; J. A. T. Pennington; US Food and Drug Adfministration; 2009;
  • The effect of biofeedback and relaxation training on anxiety and somatic complaints in chronic pain patients; Corrado, P., Gottlieb, H., & Abdelhamid, M. H.; (2003) American Journal of Pain Management, 13(4), 133-139.
  • Efficacy and risks of chiropractic manipulation: What does the evidence suggest? Coulter, I., (1998). Integrative Medicine, 1(2), 61-66.
  • Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis; Vickers, A., Cronin, A., Maschino, A., Lewith, G., MacPherson, H., Victor, N., Foster, N., Sherman, K., Witt, C., & Linde, K.; (2012) Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(9), 1444-1453
  • Assessing the role of cognitive behavioral therapy in the management of chronic nonspecific back pain; Sveinsdotir, V., Eriksen, H.R., & Reme, S.E.; (2012) Journal of Pain Research, 5, 371-80.
  • How To Eat A Low Oxalate Diet By Jill Harris and Fred Coe; http://kidneystones.uchicago.edu/how-to-eat-a-low-oxalate-diet/
  • University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Low oxalate diet. http://www.upmc.com/patients-visitors/education/nutrition/Pages/low-oxalate-diet.aspx
  • Harvard Vangaurd Medical Associate Dept. of Nephrology. Oxalate Contents of Foods.
  • Acu-cell Nutrition. www.acu-cell.com/acn.html
  • Effect of Comestibles on Symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis. Barbara Shorter, Martin Lesser, Robert M. Moldwin, Leslie Kushner. 2007. pubmed/17499305
  • Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions. Justin I. Friedlander, Barbara Shorter, Robert M. Moldwin; BJUI, Jan. 11, 2012.
  • Wine, beer and spirits – do they trigger IC flares? A patient survey reveals surprising results. Osborne J.; IC Optimist 2010; 7: 15–7
  • The role of diet in symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in adults: a narrative review; Heizer WD, Southern S, McGovern S; pubmed/19559137
  • Fibromyalgia and nutrition, what do we know? Arranz LI, Canela MA, Rafecas M.; pubmed/20358204
  • European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (EJCN). www.nature.com/ejcn/index.html;
  • High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome; Sathyapalan T, Beckett S, Rigby AS, Mellor DD, Atkin SL.; Pubmed 21092175;
  • Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis; Kristene E. Whitmore, MD; PMC1476005
  • Influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on urologic inflammation; Seetha M. Tamma, Barbara Shorter, Khai‑Lee Toh, Robert Moldwin, Barbara Gordon; 2015; Pubmed 26411429
  • Nutritional Considerations for Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome; Gordon B, Shorter B, Sarcona A, Moldwin RM.; pubmed 25934323
  • Interstitial Cystitis Diet. IC-diet.com
  • Interstitial Cystitis Association (ichelp.org)